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Author’s Instructions

The ASM Science Journal will follow the Harvard/ASM author-date style of referencing examples of which are given below.


In the text, reference to a publication is by the author’s name and date of publication and page number if a quote is included, e.g. (Yusoff 2006, p. 89) or Yusoff (2006, p. 89) ‘conclude.......’ as the case may be. They should be cited in full if less than two names (e.g. Siva & Yusoff 2005) and if more than two authors, the work should be cited with first author followed by et al. (e.g. Siva et al. 1999).

All works referred to or cited must be listed at the end of the text, providing full details and arranged alphabetically. Where more than one work by the same author is cited, they are arranged by date, starting with the earliest. Works by the same author pub¬lished in the same year are ordered with the use of letters a, b, c, (e.g. Scutt, 2003a; 2003b) after the publication date to distinguish them in the citations in the text.

General Rules

1) Authors’ names: 

• Use only the initials of the authors’ given names. 

• No full stops and no spaces are used between initials. 

2) Titles of works: 

• Use minimal capitalisation for the titles of books, book chapters and journal articles. 

• In the titles of journals, magazines and newspapers, capital letters should be used as they appear normally. 

• Use italics for the titles of books, journals and newspapers. 

• Enclose titles of book chapters and journal articles in single quotation marks. 

3) Page numbering 

• Books: page numbers are not usually needed in the reference list. If they are, include them as the final item of the citation, separated from the preceding one by a comma and followed by a full stop. 

• Journal articles: page numbers appear as the final item in the citation, separated from the preceding one by a comma and followed by a full stop. 

• Use the abbreviations p. for a single page, and pp. for a page range, e.g. pp. 11–12. 

4) Whole citation 

• The different details, or elements, of each citation are separated by commas. 

• The whole citation finishes with a full stop. 


Specific Rules

Definite rules for several categories of publications are provided below: 

1) Journal

• Kumar, P & Garde, RJ 1989, ‘Potentials of water hyacinth for sewage treatment’, Research Journal of Water Pollution Control Federation, vol. 30, no. 10, pp. 291–294. 

2) Monograph

• Hyem, T & Kvale, O (eds) 1977, Physical, chemical and biological changes in food caused by thermal processing, 2nd edn, Applied Science Publishers, London, UK.

3) Chapter in a monograph

• Biale, JB 1975, ‘Synthetic and degradative processes in fruit ripening’, eds NF Hard & DK Salunkhe, in Post-harvest biology and handling of fruits and vegetables, AVI, Westport, CT, pp. 5–18. 

4) Conference proceedings

• Common, M 2001, ‘The role of economics in natural heritage decision making’, in Heritage economics: challenges for heritage conservation and sustainable development in the 21st century: Proceedings of the International Society for Ecological Economics Conference, Canberra, 4th July 2000, Australian Heritage Commission, Canberra.

5) Website reference

• Thomas, S 1997, Guide to personal efficiency, Adelaide University, viewed 6 January 2004, <>.

6) Report

• McColloch, LP, Cook, HT & Wright, WR 1968, Market diseases of tomatoes, peppers and egg-plants, Agriculture Handbook no. 28, United States Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

7) Thesis

• Cairns, RB 1965, ‘Infrared spectroscopic studies of solid oxygen’, PhD thesis, University of California, Berkeley, CA.

8) Footnotes, spelling and measurement units

• If footnotes are used, they should be numbered in the text, indicated by superscript numbers and kept as brief as possible. The journal follows the spelling and hyphenation of standard British English. SI units of measurement are to be used at all times.

Submission of Articles

1) General. 

• Soft copy of the manuscripts should be submitted in MS Word format. The paper should conform to the style and format of the ASM Science Journal. Intending contributors will be given, on request, a copy of the journal specifications for submission of papers.

2) Title. 

• The title should be concise and descriptive and preferably not exceed fifteen words. Unless absolutely necessary, scientific names and formulae should be excluded in the title.

3) Address. 

• The author’s name, academic or professional affiliation, e-mail address, and full address should be included on the first page. All correspondence will be only with the corresponding author (should be indicated), including any on editorial decisions.

4) Abstract. 

• The abstract should precede the article and in approximately 150–200 words outline briefly the objectives and main conclusions of the paper.

5) Introduction. 

• The introduction should describe briefly the area of study and may give an outline of previous studies with supporting references and indicate clearly the objectives of the paper.

6) Materials and Methods. 

• The materials used, the procedures followed with special reference to experimental design and analysis of data should be included.

7) Results.

• Data of significant interest should be included.

8) Figures. 

• If submitted as a hard copy, line drawings (including graphs) should be in black on white paper. Alternatively sharp photoprints may be provided. The lettering should be clear. Halftone illustrations may be included. They should be submitted as clear black and white prints on glossy paper. The figures should be individually identified lightly in pencil on the back. All legends should be brief and typed on a separate sheet.

9) Tables. 

• These should have short descriptive titles, be self explanatory and typed on separate sheets. They should be as concise as possible and not larger than a Journal page. Values in tables should include as few digits as possible. In most cases, more than two digits after the decimal point are unnecessary. Units of measurements should be SI units. Unnecessary abbreviations should be avoided. Information given in tables should not be repeated in graphs and vice versa.

10) Discussion. 

• The contribution of the work to the overall knowledge of the subject could be shown. Relevant conclusions should be drawn, and the potential for further work indicated where appropriate.

11) Acknowledgements.

• Appropriate acknowledgements may be included.