Formatting

  1. Authors’ names: 
    • Use only the initials of the authors’ given names. 
    • Use full stops and no spaces between initials. 
  2. Titles of works:
    • Use minimal capitalisation for the titles of books, book chapters and journal articles.
    • In the titles of journals, magazines and newspapers, capital letters should be used as they appear normally.
    • Use italics for the titles of books, journals and newspapers. 
    • Enclose titles of book chapters and journal articles in single quotation marks. 
  3. Page numbering 
    • Books: page numbers are not usually needed in the reference list. If they are, include them as the final item of the citation, separated from the preceding one by a comma and followed by a full stop. 
    • Journal articles: page numbers appear as the final item in the citation, separated from the preceding one by a comma and followed by a full stop.
    • Use the abbreviations p. for a single page, and pp. for a page range, e.g. pp. 11–12. 
  4. Whole citation 
    • The different details, or elements, of each citation are separated by commas. 
    • The whole citation finishes with a full stop.