This statement is based on the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) Retraction Guidelines. 


According to Oxford English Dictionary (2002), a retraction is an act of recantation or withdrawal of a statement, accusation, etc., with admission of error.  

In the context of academic publishing, retraction refers to the withdrawal of a previously published article for its erroneous nature. Retraction will be issued upon decision by the Journal’s Editorial Board, with or without the Author(s) consent. Author(s) may also request a retraction, but the Editorial Board will make the final decision. However, the intention is to rectify the text, not to penalize the author(s). 

Condition for Retraction 

An article can be considered for retraction if the Editors can prove that: 

  1. The findings of the said article were unreliable 
  1. Miscalculation 
  1. Experimental error 
  1. Fabrication of data 
  1. Falsification of information or image 
  1. Plagiarism 
  1. Unethical and immoral research 
  1. Infringement of copyright, trademark, and privacy which may lead to the legal issue 
  1. Author(s) failed to pronounce any conflicting interests which may affect the interpretations of the work, thus affecting the recommendations made by the reviewers and the decision by the Editor-in-Chief. 

The Editors may ask for re-verification in the absence of concrete proof. 

Retraction Notice 

A retraction notice will be published on the Journal’s website, publicly available, and linked to the published article’s page. The original article will also be marked as “RETRACTED”. 

The retracted article will be clearly identified, with the inclusion of the title and authors in the retraction heading, the reason for retraction and how to cite the retraction. 

An expression of concern will be published while the investigation is ongoing, or in the absence of a proper investigation, with or without the Author(s) consent. Once the misconduct is decided, a retraction notice will be published, replacing the expression of concern. In the case the misconduct is proven to be wrong, an apology letter will be published. Whereas in the event of misconduct being proven to be wrong after the retraction notice was published, a retraction of the retraction notice will be published. 

A retraction notice will be based on the proven facts only. 

Republication of Retracted Article 

Should the author(s) prefer to republish part of the retracted article, which is found reliable, the retraction notice should be properly cited and linked to the original retracted article. 

The Malaysian Code of Responsible Conduct in Research 

The Malaysian Code of Responsible Conduct in Research (MCRCR) is a comprehensive, robust, and contextually appropriate guideline that is aligned to the best practices in research and in accord with international standards and practice, yet congruent with local ethical and cultural milieu and legal requirements. It serves to provide a code by which research and scientific enquiries are conducted and pursued in Malaysia. It provides a strong basis to enhance the pursuit and entrepreneurship in science; its acceptance and adherence will be good for all. 

Read the 2nd edition of MCRCR here